Februari 27 2015 4Comments

Perkembangan Perekayasaan Teknologi Ikan Nila

Permasalahan budidaya ikan yang sering dijumpai oleh pembudidaya ikan nila adalah penurunan mutu induk atau benih yang digunakan . Untuk itu perlu dilakukan upaya untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut dengan melaukukan kegiatan perekayasaan teknologi, meliputi : Penangkaran selektif (Selective Breeding), Hibridisasi, Manipulasi Set Kromoson dan perbanyakan Induk Unggul.

1.  Penangkaran selektif

Kegiatan penangkaran selektif dimaksudkan memilih calon indukan yang yang memiliki keunggulan fenotif agar menghasilkan keturunan yang unggul. Berdasarkan metode yang digunakan terdapat dua teknik seleksi yaitu seleksi massa (individu) dan seleksi famili, pada seleksi individu, individu terbaik dari satu populasi digunakan untuk menghasilkan keturunan berikutnya, sementara itu pada seleksi famili  induk terbaik dalam setiap famili saja yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan keturunan berikutnya.

Salah satu program seleksi ikan nila yang telah berhasil di dunia adalah GIFT(Genetically Improvement of Farmed Tilapia)  di Indonesia. Ikan yang di introduksikan ke Indonesia pertama kali pada tahun 1994 sangat berhasil meningkatkan ikan nila, namun mutu genetik ikan nila gift menurun seiring dengan berjalannya waktu. Saat ini telah berhasil dikembangkan beberapa strain ikan nila unggul yaitu : Ikan Nila Nirwana ( Nila Ras Wanayasa ) hasil Balai Pengembangan Benih Ikan Air Tawar (BPBIAT) Wanayasa Purwakarta Jawa Barat, Ikan Nila JATIMBULAN hasil UPTPBAT Umbulan, serta Nila BEST (Bogor Enhanced Strain Tilapia) hasil Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Tawar Bogor (BRPBAT) Bogor.

Umumnya program seleksi lebih di arahkan untuk menghasilkan individu yang memiliki pertumbuhan yang lebih baik, namun tidak menutup kemungkinan program seleksi juga dilakukan untuk aspek yang lain seperti ketahanan terhadap salinitas  (Program Nila Salin , BPPT) atau ketahanan di lahan gambut/asam (BRPBAT Bogor Mandiangin)

2.  Hibridisasi

Upaya hibridisasi ikan nila saat ini sedang dikembangkan khususnya pada ikan nila merah. Ikan nila merah yang sebelumnya di datangkan ke Indonesia pada tahun 1981 merupakan jenis hibrida, ikan nila saat ini permasalahan budidaya ikan nila merah mulai muncul  ketika tingkat pertumbuhannya mulai menurun rentan terhadap penyakit, fekunditas induk yang rendah serta penampilan bercak hitam mulai dominan.

Jenis ikan nila merah yang dihasilkan di PBIAT Janti, Jawa Tengah telah di rilis oleh Menteri Kelautan dan Perikanan dengan nama Nila Larasati. Hibridisasi nila hitam dan nila merah tersebut mampu memperbaiki pertumbuhan ikan nila lebih baik lagi. Perbaikan mutu induk ikan nila merah ini telah dilakukan di BBPBAT Sukabumi dan telah menghasilkan nila merah yang lebih baik, nila merah jenis unggul sekarang biasa di sebut Nila Merah Bangkok.

3.  Manipulasi set kromoson

Kegiatan ini dimaksudkan untuk merekayasa aspek kromoson untuk kepentingan yang diinginkan. Kegiatan rekayasa set kromoson yang umum dilakukan adalah merekayasa kromoson seks ikan agar dihasilkan individu unggul kelamin (mono sex). Pada ikan nila jantan relatif lebih cepat tumbuhnya dibandingkan betinanya  oleh karenanya memelihara ikan tunggal kelamin jantan dirasakan jauh lebih menguntungkan. Benih tunggal kelamin jantan dapat diperoleh dengan memberikan hormon androgen pada larva sebelum fase diferensiasi seksnya. Namun penggunaan hormon tersebut sudah tidak diperbolehkan lagi. alternatif pemecahan masalah yang dapat di terapkan adalah dengan metode jantan super (YY super male).

Balai Besar Pengembangan Budidaya Ikan Air Tawar (BBPBAT) sukabumi bekerjasama dengan badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT) dan Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan (FPIK, IPB) telah mengembangkan produk jantan super yang diberi nama Nila Gesit (Genetically Supermale Indonesian Tilapia) Induk Nila GESIT ini jika dipijahkan dengan nila betina biasa akan menghasilkan benih dominan jantan (GMT, Gnetically Male Tilapia) 90 % jantan semua.

 

I posted – readers will realise that my lull in posts has coincided with my move to Johannesburg and my starting a new job in engineering consulting.
The past 2.5 months at my new company have been a whirlwind of excitement. Being thrown into two projects in the midst of implementation was more challenging than I could have anticipated. Also, learning a new company’s way of operating and getting a feel of how to find and leverage the resources available always takes some time.
pro-tek-to-shoe-caps-safety-toes-for-high-heeled-shoes

My new company is vastly different to my previous one: I now live in the city and take 5 minutes to get to work, as opposed to driving 65kms everyday to my project site. I work in a large, open-planned office with white walls dotted with brightly coloured panels. Colleagues bounce around on pilates balls at their desks and work flexible hours to beat the traffic. I have swapped out my pink hard-hat for a white one (still gonna try get my pink one back though) and have exchanged safety boots for elegant pencil skirts and heels.

The most interesting and different thing about my job however is that now I have a Client. It wasn’t 3 months ago when I was the Client! Sitting on the other side of the table is quite interesting. For one, I cant be the absolute brat that I am anymore. I really enjoyed being the end-user. Working for a huge multinational gives you the feeling that anything can be possible. Everything is just large – especially in capital projects and the suppliers and consultants that work for you know the value of a customer like that. As a consultant executing two projects for a large multinational, I realise how very difficult it sometimes can be on the receiving-end.

Saying that, it has allowed me to develop in areas I never had a chance to before. I am now very diplomatic about what I say and careful about how I say it. I am conscious about what I do and the quality and detail of my work is ever-more important. I cant say that I don’t enjoy it, in fact, I love it! Its a professional environment in which I am thriving.
The other side of the coin is that now I work even more closely with people than before. Coordinating activities between draughtsmen, engineers and project administrators is all about communication and relationship building. It requires a lot of energy though, and sometimes there is a bit of conflict – but I have come to enjoy a bit of conflict once in a while ;). Just to shake things up, you know?

All in all, everyone is different and are suited to different environments. Production and mining was great experience and something that has launched my career. I would definitely recommend that all engineers get this exposure a an early stage in their careers. However, consulting is very exciting and you get broader exposure to the industry as a whole. Some people start off in consulting and never leave. It may be stressful, but if you are a very driven individual who values professionalism and detail, I would recommend it to you!

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  3. All in all, everyone is different and are suited to different environments. Production and mining was great experience and something that has launched my career. I would definitely recommend that all engineers get this exposure a an early stage in their careers. However, consulting is very exciting and you get broader exposure to the industry as a whole. Some people start off in consulting and never leave. It may be stressful, but if you are a very driven individual who values professionalism and detail, I would recommend it to you!

  4. I would definitely recommend that all engineers get this exposure a an early stage in their careers. However, consulting is very exciting and you get broader exposure to the industry as a whole. Some people start off in consulting and never leave. It may be stressful, but if you are a very driven individual who values professionalism and detail, I would recommend it to you!

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